Western Atlantic Skipjack Tuna

Western Atlantic Skipjack Tuna

Katsuwonus pelamis

ALSO KNOWN AS:

    Tuna, Ocean Bonito, Lesser Tuna, Aku

SOURCE:

    U.S. wild-caught from New York to Florida
 

STATUS

  • POPULATION
  • FISHING RATE
  • HABITAT IMPACTS
  • BYCATCH
 

Click the icons to learn more about each criteria

 
 

OVERVIEW

School of skipjack tuna

School of skipjack tuna.

LAUNCH GALLERY

Skipjack tuna is a “highly migratory species” – these fish are found around the world and can travel long distances. Unlike non-migratory species found only off our coasts, U.S. fishermen aren’t the only ones fishing for skipjack tuna. Fisheries for this species require cooperative international management to ensure the resource is abundant and global harvests are sustainable. While NOAA Fisheries is responsible for managing our domestic fisheries for skipjack tuna in the western Atlantic, the United States is also a member of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) and negotiates with other member nations to enhance international management of skipjack tuna (along with other tunas, billfish, and sharks). ICCAT periodically monitors the abundance of Atlantic skipjack tuna. They evaluate the sustainability of current and proposed harvest practices and recommend management measures, if necessary.

Skipjack tuna isn’t a major focus of U.S. commercial tuna fisheries in the western Atlantic – annual skipjack harvests only make up about 1 percent of all of the Atlantic tunas brought to port by U.S. fishermen, and only a fraction of a percent of the Atlantic skipjack tuna harvested worldwide. Almost all of the U.S. commercial harvest of skipjack tuna comes from the Pacific (see Pacific skipjack tuna). Much of it is exported to foreign markets. Skipjack are primarily sold as “canned light tuna” but are also sold fresh or frozen. The United States imports most of the fresh and frozen skipjack tuna we eat, mainly from China, Mexico, the Philippines, and Panama. Most imports of canned tuna (not species-specific) come from Thailand, followed by Vietnam, Ecuador, and the Philippines.

Looking Ahead

Skipjack often school around floating objects, including fish aggregating devices (FADs) intentionally placed in the water to attract fish. Foreign purse seiners and baitboats have used FADs extensively in the Atlantic since the early 1990s to catch skipjack, primarily off the coast of West Africa. Researchers have found that the increasing use of FADs has changed the species composition of tuna catches, resulting in a higher capture rate of juvenile yellowfin and bigeye tuna for vessels targeting skipjack. The increased presence of FADs may also have an impact on the biology and ecology of skipjack, bigeye, and yellowfin.

 

 
 
 

LOCATION & HABITAT

Skipjack tuna are found in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate waters of all oceans. In the western Atlantic, skipjack is found from Massachusetts to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Skipjack tuna are a pelagic species – they mostly live in the open ocean, but they may spend part of their life in nearshore waters. They can be found in surface waters and to depths of 850 feet during the day and generally stay near the surface at night.

Skipjack tuna is a highly migratory species, swimming long distances to feed and reproduce. They swim in schools, especially around floating objects or hydrographic discontinuities such as convergence zones, boundaries between cold and warm water masses, and upwelling areas, where dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water is pushed toward the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.

 
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BIOLOGY

Like other tropical tunas, skipjack tuna grow fast, up to over 3 feet and 40 pounds, and have a relatively short life span, around 7 years. In the eastern Atlantic, skipjack are able to reproduce when they’re a year old. They spawn throughout the year in tropical waters and seasonally (spring to early fall) in subtropical areas. Depending on their size, females can produce between 100,000 and 2 million eggs per year. Skipjack spawn more than once a season, as often as every 1.18 days. Once fertilized, the eggs hatch in about 1 day (depending on temperature).

Skipjack tuna are opportunistic feeders, preying on a variety of fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, and mollusks. Cannibalism is also common. Large pelagic fishes such as billfish, sharks, and other large tunas prey on skipjack tuna.

 
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PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION

Skipjack tuna do not have scales except on the corselet (a band of large, thick scales) and the faint lateral line running lengthwise down each side of the fish.) Their back is dark purplish blue, and their lower sides and belly are silvery with 4 to 6 conspicuous longitudinal dark bands, which may look like continuous lines of dark blotches.

 
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OVERVIEW

The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) assesses the abundance of Atlantic skipjack tuna and evaluates the sustainability of current and proposed harvest practices. They use the scientific information from these assessments to make management recommendations. They last assessed skipjack tuna in 2008 and plan to assess the species again in 2012.

 
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POPULATION STATUS

It’s difficult to assess the abundance of skipjack tuna due to its unique biological and fishery characteristics. Various assessment methods are used for skipjack tuna to overcome these difficulties, and several fishery indicators are analyzed for evidence of changes in the state of the stock over time. According to the most recent stock assessment (2008), scientists believe the Atlantic skipjack tuna stocks are healthy.

 
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Harvesting Skipjack Tuna

In the Atlantic, U.S. commercial fishermen mainly use handgear to harvest skipjack. Handgear includes rod and reel and handline gear, which consists of a mainline with no more than two hooks attached and is retrieved by hand. Handgear is highly selective and does not contact the ocean floor.

Several other nations also harvest skipjack tuna in the Atlantic (primarily in the East Atlantic) using bait boat gear or purse seines. Skipjack often school around floating objects, including fish aggregating devices (FADs) intentionally placed in the water to attract fish. Purse seiners and baitboats have used FADs extensively since the early 1990s to catch skipjack.

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Management

Who’s in charge? NOAA Fisheries Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Management Division; also, because Atlantic skipjack tuna move through large areas of the Atlantic Ocean and are fished by many nations, management by the United States alone is not enough to ensure that harvests are sustainable in the long term. The United States participates in Regional Fisheries Management Organizations, such as the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), to enhance tuna management worldwide. NOAA Fisheries sets regulations for the U.S. western Atlantic skipjack tuna fishery based on our science as well as conservation and management measures adopted by ICCAT.

Current management:
Domestic: Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan

  • Commercial fishermen must have a permit to harvest skipjack.
  • Gear restrictions.
  • Federal management for Atlantic tunas apply to state waters as well, except in Maine, Connecticut, and Mississippi; NOAA Fisheries periodically reviews these states’ regulations to make sure they’re consistent with federal regulations.

International: No specific ICCAT management measures currently apply to skipjack tuna. In 2011, ICCAT adopted a measure for bigeye and yellowfin tuna that imposes an expanded time/area closure in the Gulf of Guinea off Africa to protect young bigeye and yellowfin tunas and to strengthen monitoring and control measures in the fishery, including those regarding FADs. These measures will benefit skipjack as well as yellowfin and bigeye tuna, and help protect U.S. fishermen because, if allowed to survive, juvenile tunas in the Gulf of Guinea will have the opportunity to swim across the Atlantic and be captured in U.S. fisheries as adults.

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Annual Harvest

Skipjack tuna are caught by U.S. vessels in the western North Atlantic but are only a minor component of total U.S. tuna landings and a very small percentage of the total international landings of western Atlantic skipjack tuna. In 2010, the United States contributed about 0.3 percent of the total western Atlantic skipjack landings and 0.03 percent of total Atlantic skipjack landings.

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Economy

The average ex-vessel price (the price fishermen receive for their catch) of skipjack tuna increased in the South Atlantic from 2009 to 2010. From 2003 to 2010, the average ex-vessel price of skipjack tuna decreased 11 percent. The ex-vessel price depends on a number of factors, including the quality of the fish (e.g., freshness, fat content, method of storage), the weight of the fish, the supply of fish, and consumer demand. In 2010, annual ex-vessel revenues for the fishery were around $133,000.

In addition, recreational fishing for highly migratory species such as skipjack tuna also provides significant economic benefits to coastal communities through individual angler expenditures, recreational charters, tournaments, and the shoreside businesses that support those activities.

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Recreational

U.S. recreational fishermen account for more of the total catch of skipjack tuna in the western Atlantic than commercial fisheries. Recreational fishermen must have a permit to fish for skipjack tuna.

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OVERVIEW

Skipjack are primarily sold as “canned light tuna” (often packed along with yellowfin tuna) but are also sold fresh or frozen. When raw, good-quality skipjack meat is deep red. Smaller fish are lighter red. Cooked skipjack becomes light gray. Skipjack has the most pronounced taste of all of the tropical tunas.

 
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SEASONAL AVAILABILITY

Frozen and canned year-round; fresh in late summer through early fall

 
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NUTRITION

Skipjack is an excellent source of low-fat protein.

Servings 1
Serving Weight 100 g (raw)
Calories 103
Protein 22.00 g
Fat, total 1.01 g
Saturated fatty acids, total 0.328 g
Carbohydrate 0 g
Sugars, total 0 g
Fiber, total dietary 0 g
Cholesterol 47 mg
Selenium 36.5 mcg
Sodium 37 mg

Western Atlantic Skipjack Tuna Table of Nutrition

 
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RECIPES

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